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Friday, February 3, 2012

The Concept of Tripple Oppression in the Novels of Gwendolyn Brooks and Bama

Oppression is a cunning strategy through which one section of the people is dominated and discriminated by other section, to enjoy some privileges. Creative writing brings into light the modes, consequences and the roots of oppression. This study is an attempt to expose the oppression faced by Dalit and Black women which are threefold - society, caste and race, and patriarchy. The present study is an inquiry into the threefold oppression which is analysed through two important writers: Gwendolyn Brooks and Bama. Brooks through her works narrates how society, race and patriarchy operate in a Black woman's life. She gives enough evidences in a novel Maud Martha, showing how a Black woman is considered as a non-entity or a non-belonger. Bama through the portrayal of Dalit women's life in Sangati from birth, childhood, marriage to death, reveals the Dalit women's struggle against the society, caste and patriarchy. the entire study focuses on these two writers representing there own communities to show the oppression they face in their daily life. The first chapter focuses on the significance and relevance of comparative Literature. Then it goes on to deal with the characteristics of African American literature and Dalit literature and also highlights how Brooks and Bama represent Black and Dalit feminism. The second chapter discusses in brief the cause and nature of oppression. It contains a short synopsis of the two novels Maud Martha and Sangati. The third chapter analyses the two books and shows how triple oppression acts as a powerful force in determining the life of Black and Dalit women. The fourth chapter narrates the optimistic tone of the novelists Brooks and Bama. It pinpoints the similarities and differences between both the novelists. The final chapter sums up the comparative study of both the novels and also the suggestions put forth by Brooks and Bama to break the oppression. for further details contact ek12385@gmail.com

TRAIN TO PAKISTAN

Mano Majra, a small village in Punjab, serves as the fictional setting of Train to Pakistan. It is situated on the Indo-Pak border, half a mile away from the river Sutlej. In spite of bloodshed and rioting in the frontier area, life in Mano majra remains peaceful. The river is spanned by a rail road bridge. On one heavy August night five dacoits, led by Mali, raid the house of Ram Lal, the village money lender, and commit robbery and murder. On their way out they fire shots in the air and throw bangles in the house of Juggat Singh, who has not joined them. At the time Jugga has gone out in the fields to meet Nooran, his beloved. Jugga has had an inglorious past; his father has been hanged for murder; he has served several terms in jail and is now released only conditionally. He is required not to leave his home after sunset. But the call of Nooran’s love is too strong for him and he goes out to meet her. They are locked in each other’s arms till they hear the sound of gun fire. Nooran is the blind Muslim weaver’s daughter and the whole village knows of her association with Jugga. Almost at the same time when Mali and his gang are committing dacoity and Jugga and Nooran are engaged in a loving embrace. Hukum Chand, the district magistrate, is involved in a sordid affair with Hareena, a teenager prostitute at the officers’ Rest House across the bridge. His mouth smells of whisky, tobacco and pyorrhea. As he starts fumbling with her dress, he hears the sounds of shots, noises of distant people, and he swears and leaves the girl. Next morning policemen arrive at Mano Majra to conduct an inquiry into the murder. The same train brings Iqbal (Singh), a western-educated, immature socialist to Mano Majra. He has been deputed by his party to create political consciousness among peasants at that crucial period. He arrives at the village Sikh Temple – Gurudwara-, meets Meet Singh, but, to his surprise, is later arrested. He and Jugga are both held or grounds of mere suspicion. He is arrested by sheer mistake but is later suspected to be a Muslim Leaguer. The police inspector has stripped him naked merely to observe whether he is ‘circumcised’ and, therefore, a Muslim. Events move fast and the fate of individuals in Mano Majra is almost overwhelmed by catastrophic events of the partition. The arrival of the ghost train, filled with corpses at Mano Majra from Pakistan created a commotion. Sikhs and Muslims, who have lived together for centuries, are engulfed in a fratricidal conflict. The scene of their meeting and consultation is pathetic. Mass madness in the air and it invades Mano Majra too. Muslims of evacuating to a refugee camp for departure to Pakistan later. Nooran, who is with Jugga’s child, receives no encouragement from his mother and is taken to a camp of intending evacuees. Meanwhile no evidence is obtained by the police for Jugga’s or Iqbal’s part in Ram Lal’s murder, and they are released on purpose by Hukum Chand. Fanatical outriders are busy with revengeful activities and they plan to blow up the bridge and the train which is scheduled to carry Muslim refugees to Pakistan in retaliation for what Pakistani Muslims have done to Hindus trying to cross over into India. Jugga went to Mano majra only to find that Nooran has been taken to the camp. She is to board the train to Pakistan. Then Jugga climbs the steel spans of the bridge and begins to slash at the rope with a kirpan. The leader of the Hindu saboteurs fires at him, but Jugga clings to it with his hands and cuts the rope in shreds. The engine of the in coming train is almost on him.

Monday, January 30, 2012

Type-cast roles in Anita Desai’s "Where shall we go this summer"

Eating, breathing, working and sleeping are not the only activities for which God created woman. If a woman were to spend her married life in complete servitude with a notion that Nature has allotted to her a capacity to love her husband and rear children who would one day be exemplary citizens, then that life would be a barren existence. An existence that is totally devoid of creativity and experimentation is pathetic and yet it is still what Indian males expect their women to be. Anita Desai’s Where shall we go this summer illustrates this point convincingly. Anita Desai has chosen ‘Sita’ as the name for her heroine in this novel because, for the Indian consciousness, Sita stands for the typical Indian woman who is pious, beautiful and loyal to her husband and these are the qualities of Lord Rama’s wife Sita in the Ramayana. Mythology has the uncanny habit of planting deeply rooted ideas and concepts in the minds of people. It is very hard for a generation to forget this image planted in the collective unconscious realm (As Jung would describe it). One cannot forget any incident overnight and how much so for a generation to forget the heroes and heroines of mythology! Bearing children, whether the woman desires for it or not, seems to be the order of the day in Where shall we go this summer . Bearing the fifth child becomes the point of contention for Sita and it is as if each child’s birth and arrival at the homestead reinforces the fact that Sita is destined to a life of drudgery. Sita goes to the island in search of freedom and instead confronts nothing that is very different from what she experienced in the city. She flees into wilderness to find her wild side but the island disappoints her by pointing out the barrenness in her life through a very uneventful life. It is a disappointment of many sorts in the sense, Sita becomes more acutely aware of her barrenness in the island more than what she felt during her stay in the city. In other words, It is a thwarted escape, an escape into another kind of prison; an escape from a prison made of crude metal bars into a prison made of golden bars.

Friday, November 11, 2011

CAUSE AND EFFECT EXPRESSIONS

1. It will be too costly to relocate to a new site. Besides, the current lease still has fifteen years to run.
2. Another computer application which students find very convenient for their research is information available on CD-ROM.
3. Education is essential for the development of a human being. Furthermore, the level of skills and knowledge required continues to increase.
4. In addition to CD-ROMs, students tend to use a wide range of internet sources for their research.
5. Students need to develop basic word processing skills. Moreover, the ability to use spreadsheets and databases is becoming increasing usual.
6. An additional advantage to being computer literate is the use of e-mail to maintain contact with a wide range of friends and family worldwide.
7. Word processing, databases and spreadsheets.
8. With regard to computer availability at university for students, there is always going to be a shortfall.
9. The ability to use Powerpoint for presentations is also useful for university students.
10. Students' computer skills vary enormously. For example, some can use the most sophisticated software whereas others still have to learn keyboard skills.
11. An example of more sophisticated computing skills is being able to use a programming language such as C+.
12. There are many different computer programming languages. For instance, and Java are two that are widely used.
13. Sweden and Norway are both similar and different. In fact they share a long border and are both in Scandinavia, but there are many differences as well.
14. Norway in particular is different from other Scandinavian countries because it has extensive natural oil wealth to support its economy.
15. A country such as Norway can afford not to be a member of the European Union due to its significant oil wealth.
16. The temperature in both Sweden and Denmark is around 2 – 4º C in winter and 17 – 18º C in summer. In other words, they have very similar climates.
17. Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway all have extensive coastlines. That is to say they are all maritime nations.
18. Classes for this group are fixed on Mondays and Thursdays. Alternatively, if you transfer to another group ...
19. first point in the background to the topic is ...
20. Second, the literature review follows on from the discussion of the background.
21. Wellington succeeded at Waterloo because Napoleon made three errors. First ... Second ... Third ...
22. The research was complete. Then, out of the blue, a newspaper ...
23. The first task is a quality audit. Next in importance, is a ...
24. During the next three months we will require these three outcomes:
25. The target will not be achieved until all of the following have been completed: (1) ... (2) ...
26. Last in my list of recommendations ...
27. Before I start putting the academic case, let me begin by outlining several problems.
28. Since starting, the improvements I have made in my study skills have been amazing. Skills such as ... and ...
29. Finally, I would like to add a last point ...
30. Whilst (while) familiar with the above, we still needed to investigate ...
31. We need to remedy the defects found in stage 2. As soon as this happens, we can proceed to ...
32. The sea provides us with food. Meanwhile it also provides us with many leisure opportunities such as swimming and sailing.
33. In the last ten years oil consumption has doubled. As a result of this, the price of oil has risen steadily.
34. Unknown to us, the air-line had been blocked. Consequently the patient ...
35. Jones (1997b) reports his results were inconclusive and flawed. Thus the points I made earlier ...
36. Three of the previous groups had already covered the finance aspects thoroughly. For that reason, our study group decided to ...
37. Despite significant recent progress, the project is still falling behind schedule. The cause of this is ...
38. We do not need to consider this aspect further since it has already been covered by the following: (1) ..., (2) ..., etc.
39. ... the way the items were stored. As a consequence, several components ...
40. Scientists and engineers are already draining forest swampland. Therefore, there is the possibility of extending the amount of land available for food production in the world.
41. ... So, with this in mind, we should ...
42. The weather was always unreliable. Due to this, 'planes were frequently delayed ...
43. Many of my fellow students were unfamiliar with the technique. Hence our early examples covered ...
44. Much of this ... was due to patriotism. Accordingly, the ...
45. These improvements in health treatment have been taking place over the past twenty years. The effect of this ...
46. The imposition of this policy produced a fracture in the work force. The consequence of this fracture ...
47. ... relative to the points made earlier. Similarly, the ...
48. This is similar to the third point and notes ...
49. Not only does this result confirm the previous work, but also, it reaffirms ...
50. Two survey techniques have been employed in this report. Both of these
51. ... we need to consider the relationship with the state. Also we need to recall ...
52. ... so traditionally girls were educated in 'homecare' subjects. In comparison, boys were ...
53. ... in a gesture which suggested abduction rather than seduction. The same as early Athenian society, ...
54. ... and a viable future for cheap energy production. Correspondingly, this benefits the ...
55. Like many before them, these newcomers experienced the following problems: (1) ..., (2) ..., (3) ..., etc.
56. ... pretend not to notice what was going on. In the same way, the first…
57. As before, we can comment on these similar ideals.
58. ... On the other hand, we can consider the case of ...
59. I always felt good study skills would be useful in obtaining a good degree. But I never realised how much ...
60. ... and so the point is well made. Although it must also be said that ...
61. ... While the previous point is valid, we also have to consider ...
62. ... Despite this obvious point, we also need to discuss ...
63. ... Unlike the previous case study, we also need to ...
64. ... could have exerted influence from a position of power and money. Instead she chose to ...
65. ... Even though these points are noted, there are still additional ...
66. ... Nevertheless, an additional case could be made for ...
67. ... Nonetheless, each case study required quite significant input ...
68. ... Dissimilar points can also be made for ...
69. ... Conversely, we also need to consider ...
70. ... Notwithstanding the points made earlier, we do need to challenge the belief that ...
71. The amount of land that can support human life has not yet been exhausted. On the contrary, there are significant areas still to be developed.
72. Many people believe that nuclear power will solve our energy problem. However others believe that nuclear power is too dangerous as a weapon of mass destruction and as a threat to the environment to be used for supplying energy.
73. Whereas the previous section considered ..., this section considers ...
74. Glazier (1998) had considered all such work irrelevant. In spite of this, Lawrence (2000) still undertook ...
75. ... This is different from the expected result in several ways. Firstly ..., secondly ..., etc.
76. Webster (1999) has been known to differ from this point, in that he notes ...
77. The earth is suffering from over-population, resource depletion, pollution and the danger of inter-group warfare. In brief, there are still many problems for society to tackle.
78. ... In short, the point can be summarised as ...
79. In conclusion, linking words are essential for improving the coherence of academic language in both writing and speaking.
80. ... To sum up, we need to consider the following ...
81. ... To conclude, the benefits of this approach are best met by ...
82. Overall, the case can be summed up by ...

Dictionary of Technical English

http://www.engineering-dictionary.org/Dictionary-of-Technical-English/